There is also its companion gshadow which is rarely used. Its details are at gshadow 5. Add users to a group with the gpasswd command see FS regarding errors; alternatively the usermod command may be used :.
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Modify an existing group with groupmod ; e. There are many other groups, which will be created with correct GID when the relevant package is installed. See the main page for the software for details. The following groups are used for system purposes, an assignment to users is only required for dedicated purposes:. Before arch migrated to systemd , users had to be manually added to these groups in order to be able to access the corresponding devices. This way has been deprecated in favour of udev marking the devices with a uaccess tag and logind assigning the permissions to users dynamically via ACLs according to which session is currently active.
Note that the session must not be broken for this to work see General troubleshooting Session permissions to check it. There are some notable exceptions which require adding a user to some of these groups: for example if you want to allow users to access the device even when they are not logged in.
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However, note that adding users to the groups can even cause some functionality to break for example, the audio group will break fast user switching and allows applications to block software mixing. This article or section is a candidate for merging with Shadow. The factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed. As warned in User database , using specific utilities such as passwd and chfn , is a better way to change the databases. Nevertheless, there are times when editing them directly is looked after.
For those times, vipw , vigr are provided. It is strongly recommended to use these tailored editors over using a general text editor as they lock the databases against concurrent editing. Note that Arch Linux prefers usage of specific tools, such as chage , for modifying the shadow database over using vipw -s and vigr -s from the shadow-utils suite. See also FS Note: The beginner should use these tools carefully and stay away from having anything to do with any other existing user account, other than their own.
Reason: Mention shadow. Discuss in Talk:Users and groups.
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Warning: Do not edit these files by hand. There are utilities that properly handle locking and avoid invalidating the format of the database. See User management and Group management for an overview. Note: The password for the newly created user must then be defined, using passwd as shown in Example adding a user. Tip: The default value used for the login shell of the new account can be displayed using useradd --defaults.
Tip: You can create a link from the user's former home directory to the new one. Doing this will allow programs to find files that have hardcoded paths.
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Warning: Make certain that you are not logged in as the user whose name you are about to change. Open a new tty e. Tip: The adduser AUR script allows carrying out the jobs of useradd , chfn and passwd interactively. Warning: The passwd file is world-readable, so storing passwords hashed or otherwise in this file is insecure.
For this reason it is recommended to always change passwords using the passwd command. Warning: Arch Linux defaults of the files are created as. Unless Pacman outputs related messages for action, these.
New required default users and groups are added or re-added as needed by systemd-sysusers 8. Note: This will change a group name but not the numerical GID of the group. This is intentional because any files created during its usage would otherwise be left orphaned as a potential security risk. Designing organizations for mass collaboration demands a new and very different model—wiki management. Featuring enlightening examples from forward-thinking companies including Google, Whole Foods, Linux, and Wikipedia, Wiki Management outlines the revolutionary but necessary steps companies must take to:.
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