Fames Historiae Artis Neerlandicae. Brussel See also B. Cardon, 'Aantekeningen bij de Annunciatie uit het voormalige cellebroedersklooster to Diest.. Jahrhu"dert, Mi. Was sie feilboten, mochte sciten etwas anderes sein als Schlerarbeiten und Kopien, die bei Malern, welche grosse Ateliers hielten, sehr haufig im i.
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The cheapest paintings of this kind came from Brabam and were called "Brabam Works-in-the-Dozen"]. Bruijn, 'Een onderzoek naar 17de-eeuwse schilderijformaten, voornamelijk in Noord-Nederland', Olld Holland, 93 , p. Brown, Rubens's Landscapes. Making and Meaning, Exh. Vrient died in , we have a period of four years within which the paiming must have been executed.
See the forthcoming catalogue raisonne of the Portraits in the Mallritshuis . Item, betaelt Machiel Vrindt, van het voorschreven paneel te vermederen, d'welcke te cleyn was, 38 gulden" [ Vriem ro enlarge the previous menrioned panel which was tOO small, 38 Guilders]. Van dec Stock I99O , op.
De Smedt: op. This will produce a reproduction of the mark. An added scale from a ruler enables us to later reproduce che mark in all medias, still enabling us to make comparisons with other marks. The advanrage of rubbings is that they can easily be compared with each Other by superimposing them on a light table. More important, chis kind of documentation is very simple as it only requires a minimum of equipment. On the comrary, drawn reproductions often lead to subjective interpretations which conflict with the ideal documentation, which should have the highest degree of objectivity.
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Nieuwdorp, 'De oorspronkelijke betekenis cn interpretatie van de Keurmerken op Brabantse retabels en beeldsnijwerk 15de-begin 16de eeuw ', in Archivum Artis Lovaniensis, Leuven , p. Wadum, 'Antwecp Copper Plates', in cat. A forthcoming article will be dealing with this aspect, which indicates a dating of the panels based on this alteration. Vrient was recorded as apprentices but did not become a master until Due to a lapsus Van Damme, o. Panel, 39,4 x 57,2. Sale Christie's, London, Rombouts, Th. Van Lerius, op. Note After the dead-line for submitting this article I had the opportunity to examine the Rubens's sketches in the'Alte Pinakothek, Munich, made for the Medici-Cycle, now in Paris, The contract for the series, which consists of 21 oil sketches, 16 of which are now in Munich, was submitted to Rubens on February 22, This commission was, with a few exceptions, completed by the end of that same year.
On the reverse of the sketches, executed on panel of mainly three standard sizes, 49 x 39 cm, 65 x 50, and 55 x 92 cm , on every single panel one finds identical brands of Antwerp, Michie! Vrient's monogram, as well as the letter 'A', This discovery adds considera bly weight to the hypothesis that the letter' A' is a year letter as first suggested by ].
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Van Damme in This conclusion is further substantiated by yet another painting by Rubens, Portrait of an Old Man, On its back is the Antwerp brand, Vrient's monogram and the 'A'. Further this panel was dendrochronologically examined and its two planks proved to originate from the same tree as was used for planks for some of the Medicisketches in Munich.
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Therefore my -above- proposed dating of for the branding of Antwerp panels with the letter 'A' can be narrowed down to I am extremely grateful to Dr. Front cover: Aless:tndro. The J. Paul Getty Museum Los Angeles. Strips of aged poplar. Roubo, Acad.
Page Girolamo di Benvenuto, Nativity, reverse. A cumbersome. The Gerty Conservation Institute works internationally to further the appreciation and preservation of the world's cultural heritage for the enrichment and use of present and future generations. The institute is an -operating program of the]. P"olul Gcny TrIDl. The H,ting of product names ;;lnd supplier, in thi, book is pro Library of Congress: C:at:aloging.
The structural conservation of panel paintings: proceedings of a symposium at the j.
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Organized by the Getty Conservation Institute and the J. Paul Getty Museum. Includes bibliographical references. Panel paindng-Conservarlun and.
Dardes, Kathleen, Rothe, Andrea. Cetty Conservation Imtitute. The guild rules that have been preserved are also an important source of information to the extent that they mention paints applicable to the joiners or panel makers Miedema The guild comprised not only painters but many members of the various crafts related to art production.
Both groups made panels, bur for different purposes. The sculptors had the specialized bakmakt'TS box makers make boxes and panels for their retables; however, joiners were also allowed to make panels. When the production of altars began to slow down in the sixteenth century. During the seventeenth century. During the same time period. Aside from producing frames. In Germany quality control had already been introduced in the late Gothic period.
Any irregularities were to be reported to the head of the guild. The artists would often use wood native to their region. Albrecht DUrer , for example, painted on poplar when he was in Venice and on oak when in the Netherlands and southern Germany. Outside of the Rhineland, softwood such as pinewood was mainly used. Large altars made in Denmark during the fifteenth century used oak for the figures as well as for the painted wing panels Skov and Thomsen Lime was popular with Albrecht Altdorfer ca. Cranach often used beech wood-an unusual choice.
In northern Europe, poplar is very rarely found, but walnut and chestnut are not uncommon. In the northeast and south, coniferous trees such as spruce, fir, and pine have been used Klein Augsburg, Nuremberg, and Saxony. Pinewood was used mainly in Tirol and beech wood only in Sachen. In general, oak was the most common substrate used for panel making in the Low Countries Peres , northern Germany, and the Rhineland around Cologne.
In France, until the seventeenth century, most panels were made from oak, although a few made of walnut and poplar have been found. The oak favored as a support by the painters of the northern school was, however, not always of local origin. In recent years dendrochronological studies have traced the enormous exportation of oak from the Baltic region to the Hansa towns. Oak coming from Konigsberg as well as Gdansk was, therefore, often referred to as Coninbergh tienvoethout ft. The longest plOlnks available on the market 12 ft.
In the last decade of the seventeenth century, Wilhelmus Beurs, a Dutch writer on painting techniques, considered oak to be the most useful wooden substrate on which to paint. Beurs reported that not all wood is favorable for panels, "and what was used by the old masters who had very durable panels, then we today can say.
If possible, smaller paintings. The rext of Beurs implicitly suggests that the use of other wood species would probably have been experimental in nature. However, exceptions arc seen rather eady in the seventeenth centulY sometimes walnut. Mahogany was already in use by a number of painters during the first decades of the seventeenth century and was used often in the Netherlands in the nineteenth century.
Even so, when canvas or copper was not used, the main oeuvre of the northern school was painted on oak panels. The quality of an oak panel can be seen from its grain. If the medullary rays in an oak panel are visible, the quality should be good. The density of the wood is also important to the quality. Before Lhe year rings whuse [urmaLiun tkpends un age, physical location, and climatological factors arl'. S In the sixteenth century sapwood is rarely seen on panels, but in the seventeenth century a narrow edge of it is often recognized on one side-in violation of guild rules that threatened a fine for the use of sapwood Van Der Straelen Sometimes oak shows the signs of insect attack in a light area in the middle of a plank.
This light part of the wood is called a Mondring, 6 and it consists of sapwood lhal has nut transformed Itself intO hardwood. This phenomenon is due to an incomplete enzymatic reaction in the wood tissue, usually caused by strong frost Fig. Splitting the timber was the usual method for obtaining radial planks of good quality, and this procedure was used by Dutch and German artisans until the sixteenth century, when the sawmill became standard for cutting large planks Tangeberg The saw, which was known in classical times but forgotten until rediscovery in the fourteenth century, was mainly used from the fifteenth century onward.
Later the wood was further treated with axes and scraping irons. The wood plane was also known to the Romans, but planing of panels did not become common until the fourteemh cenlury Fig. Tn some cases a wedge-shaped plank would be used directly; in other cases, it would be planed down. The planing would often be per-. The Mondring.
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